The following posters have been accepted for publication at IEEE VR 2015:

Posters presented on Wednesday


Posters presented on Thursday


Posters presented on Friday



Wednesday 1


Investigating Visual Dominance with a Virtual Driving Task


Abdulaziz Alshaer - University of Otago's Information Science Department              

Holger Regenbrecht - University of Otago's Information Science Department              

David O'Hare - University of Otago's Psychology Department 


Presenting Author:  Holger Regenbrecht

Abstract: Most interactive input devices for virtual reality-based simulators are proprietary and expensive. Can they be substituted with standard, inexpensive devices if the virtual representation of the input device looks and acts like the original? Visual dominance theory, where the visual aspects of the displayed input device within the virtual environment should override the haptic aspects of the real device, would appear to support such a possibility. We tested this visual dominance theory in a VR power wheelchair simulator scenario comparing standard gaming and proprietary wheelchair joysticks in combinations with their virtual counterparts and measured the effects on driving performance.


Wednesday 2


VR and AR Simulator for Neurosurgical Training


Ryan Armstrong - University of Western Ontario 

Sandrine de Ribaupierre - University of Western Ontario 

Dayna Noltie - University of Western Ontario 

Matt Kramers - University of Western Ontario 

Roy Eagleson - University of Western Ontario 


Presenting Author: Roy Eagleson

Abstract: The placement of an external ventricular drain is one of the most commonly performed neurosurgical procedures, and consequently, is an essential skill to be mastered by neurosurgical trainees. The drain placement involves analyzing images from the patient, choosing an entry point and deciding on a trajectory to hit the ventricle. In this paper, we describe the development of a simulation environment to train residents, coupled with an AR image-guidance tool. Performance is evaluated using Fitts’ methodology (Fitts, 1954), which respects the users ability to trade-off speed and accuracy.


Wednesday 3


High-Definition Digital Display Case with the Image-based Interaction


Yuki Ban, The University of Tokyo

Takashi Kajinami, The University of Tokyo

Takuji Narumi, The University of Tokyo

Tomohiro Tanikawa, The University of Tokyo

Michitaka Hirose, The University of Tokyo


Presenting Author: Yuki Ban

Abstract: This paper proposes a high-definition digital display case for manipulating a virtual exhibit that has linking mechanisms. This technique enhances the understanding of dynamic exhibits. It is difficult to construct interactive contents of dynamic virtual exhibits, because measuring the mechanism invokes the risk of an exhibit's deterioration, and it takes tremendous efforts to create a fine spun computer graphics (CG) model for mechanisms. Therefore, we propose an image-based interaction method that uses image-based rendering to construct interactive contents for dynamic virtual exhibits using the interpolation between exhibit pictures with a number of deformational conditions and viewpoints. Using this method, we construct a high-definition digital showcase and exhibit the interactive content at a museum to evaluate the availability of our system.


Wednesday 4


Volumetric Calibration and Registration of RGBD-Sensors


Stephan Beck, Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Bernd Froehlich, Bauhaus-Universität Weimar


Presenting Author: Stephan Beck

Abstract: We present an integrated approach for the calibration and registration of color and depth (RGBD) sensors into a joint coordinate system without explicitly identifying intrinsic or extrinsic camera parameters. Our method employs a tracked checkerboard to establish a number of correspondences between positions in color and depth camera space and in world space. These correspondences are used to construct a single calibration and registration volume per RGBD sensor which directly maps raw depth sensor values into a joint coordinate system and to their associated color values. Our evaluation demonstrates an accuracy with an average 3D error below 3 mm and an average texture deviation smaller than 0.5 pixels for a space of about 1.5 m x 1.8 m x 1.5 m.


Wednesday 5


Touching sounds : Perception of the Curvature of Auditory Virtual Surfaces


Eric O. Boyer, LPP AVOC Team, UMR 8242 CNRS-Université Paris Descartes, Paris

Lucyle Vandevoorde, UFR STAPS - Université Paris Descartes

Frédéric Bevilacqua, STMS, IRCAM-CNRS-UPMC, Paris

Sylvain Hanneton, LPP AVOC Team, UMR 8242 CNRS-Université Paris Descartes, Paris


Presenting Author: Eric Boyer

Abstract: In this study, we investigated the ability of blindfolded adults to discriminate between concave and convex auditory virtual surfaces. We used a Leap Motion device to measure the movements of the hand and fingers. Participants were asked to explore the space above the device with the palm of one hand and an auditory feedback was produced only when the palm was moving into the boundaries of the surface. In order to demonstrate that curvature direction was correctly perceived by our participants, we estimated their discrimination thresholds with a psychophysical staircase procedure. Two groups of participants were fed with two different sonification of the surface. Results showed that most of the participants were able to learn the task. The best results were obtained with an auditory feedback related to the component of the hand velocity tangential to the virtual surface. This work proposes a contribution to the introduction in virtual reality of auditory virtual objects.


Wednesday 6


Wayfinding by Auditory Cues in Virtual Environments


Ayana Burkins - Department of Computer Science         

Regis Kopper - Duke immersive Virtual Environment   


Presenting Author: Ayana Burkins

Abstract: Wayfinding is a typical task in virtual environments. Real-world aids such as maps and Global Position Systems can present unique challenges due to the potential for cognitive overload and the immersive nature of the environment. This work presents the results of a pilot study involving the use of auditory cues as a wayfinding aid in a virtual mall environment. The data suggests that users are able to complete wayfinding tasks faster and more accurately in an environment containing sound cues than in one without.


Wednesday 7


Portable-Spheree: A portable 3D Perspective-Corrected Interactive Spherical Scalable Display


Marcio Cabral - Polytechnic School - University of Sao Paulo     

Fernando Ferreira - Federal University of ABC          

Olavo Belloc - Polytechnic School - University of Sao Paulo     

Celso Kurashima - Federal University of ABC          

Roseli Lopes - Polytechnic School - University of Sao Paulo     

Ian Stavness - University of Saskatchewan      

Junia Anacleto - Federal University of Sao Carlos             

Sidney Fels - University of British Columbia  

Marcelo Zuffo - Polytechnic School - University of Sao Paulo     


Presenting Author: Marcio Cabral

Abstract: In this poster we present Portable-Spheree, an interactive spherical rear-projected 3D-content-display that provides perspective-corrected views according to the user's head position, to provide parallax, shading and occlusion depth cues. Portable-Spheree is an evolution of the Spheree and it is developed in a smaller form factor, using more projectors and a dark-translucent screen with increased contrast. We present some preliminary results of this new configuration as well as applications with spatial interaction that might benefit from this new form factor.


Wednesday 8


A Multi-Layer Approach of Interactive Path Planning for Assisted Manipulation in Virtual Reality


Simon Cailhol, ENIT-LGP

Philippe Fillatreau, ENIT-LGP

Jean-Yves Fourquet, ENIT-LGP

Yingshen Zhao, ENIT-LGP


Presenting Author: Jean-Yves Fourquet

Abstract:This work considers VR applications dealing with objects manipulation (such as industrial product assembly, disassembly or maintenance simulation). For such applications, the operator performing the simulation can be assisted by path planning techniques from the robotics research field. A novel automatic path planner involving geometrical, topological and semantic information of the environment is proposed for the guidance of the user through a haptic device. The interaction allows on one hand, the automatic path planner to provide assistance to the human operator, and on the other hand, the operator to reset the whole planning process suggesting a better suited path. Control sharing techniques are used to improve the assisted manipulation ergonomics by dynamically balancing the automatic path planner authority according to the operator involvement in the task, and by predicting user’s intent to integrate it as early as possible in the planning process.


Wednesday 9


Visual-Olfactory Immersive Environment For Product Evaluation


Marina Carulli, Politecnico di Milano

Monica Bordegoni, Politecnico di Milano

Umberto Cugini, Politecnico di Milano


Presenting Author: Monica Bordegoni

Abstract: The sense of smell has a great importance in our daily life. In recent years, smells have been used for marketing purposes with the aim of improving the person's mood and of communicating information about products as household cleaners and food. However, the scent design discipline can be also applied to any kind of products to communicate their features to customers. In the area of Virtual Reality several researches have focused on integrating smells in virtual environments. The research questions addressed in this work concern whether Virtual Prototypes, including the sense of smell, can be used for evaluating products as effectively as studies performed in real environments, and also whether smells can contribute to increase the users' sense of presence in the virtual environment. For this purpose, a Virtual Reality experimental framework including a prototype of a wearable olfactory display has been set up, and experimental tests have been performed.


Wednesday 10


Comparative Evaluation of Stylized versus Realistic Representation of Virtual Humans on Empathetic Responses in Simulated Interpersonal Experiences


Himanshu Chaturvedi, Clemson University

Nathan Newsome, Clemson University

Sabarish Babu, Clemson University

June Luo, Clemson University

Tania Roy, Clemson University

Shaundra Daily, Clemson University

Jeffrey Bertrand, Clemson University

Tracy Fasolino, Clemson University

Elham Ebrahimi, Clemson University


Presenting Author: Himanshu Chaturvedi

Abstract: The effectiveness of visual realism of virtual characters in engaging users and eliciting affective responses has been an open question. We empirically evaluated the effects of realistic vs. non-realistic rendering of virtual humans on the emotional response of participants in a medical virtual reality system that was designed to educate users to recognize the signs and symptoms of patient deterioration. In a between-subjects experiment protocol, participants interacted with one of three different appearances of a virtual patient, namely realistic, non-realistic cartoon-shaded and charcoal-sketch like conditions. Emotional impact of the rendering conditions was measured via a combination of subjective and objective metrics.


Wednesday 11


Validation of SplitVector Encoding and Stereoscopy for Visualizing Quantum Physics Data in Virtual Environments


Jian Chen - University of Maryland, Baltimore County         

Henan Zhao - University of Maryland, Baltimore County         

Wesley Griffin - University of Maryland, Baltimore County         

Judith E. Terrill - National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST)  

Garnett W. Bryant - National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST)  


Presenting Author: Jian Chen

Abstract: We designed and evaluated SplitVector, a new vector field display approach to help scientists perform new discrimination tasks on scientific data shown in virtual environments (VEs). We present an empirical study to compare the SplitVector approach with three other approaches in information-rich VEs. Twenty participants performed three domain analyses tasks. Our empirical study results suggest the following: (1) SplitVectors improve the accuracy by about 10 times compared to the linear mapping and by 4 times to log in discrimination tasks and (2) SplitVectors lead to no significant differences from the IRVE text display approach, yet reduce the clutter.


Wednesday 12


A Building-Wide Indoor Tracking System for Augmented Reality


Stéphane Côté - Bentley Systems            

François Rheault - Sherbrooke University

Julien Barnard - Université Laval              


Presenting Author: Stéphane Côté

Abstract: Buildings require regular maintenance, and augmented reality (AR) could advantageously be used to facilitate the process. However, such AR systems would require accurate tracking to meet the needs of engineers, and work accurately in entire buildings. In this project, we propose a hybrid system combining low accuracy radio-based tracking, and high accuracy tracking using depth images obtained from range cameras. Results show tracking accuracy that would be compatible with AR applications and that would be constant within a building.


Wednesday 13


Collaborative Table-Top VR Display for Neurosurgical Planning


Roy Eagleson, Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada

Patrick Wucherer, Technische Universität München, Germany

Philipp Stefan, Technische Universität München, Germany

Yaroslav Duschko, Technische Universität München,Germany

Sandrine de Ribaupierre, Robarts Research Institute, Western University, Canada

Christian Vollmar, Klinikum der  Universität München, Germany

Pascal Fallavollita, Technische Universität München,Germany

Nassir Navab, Technische Universität München,Germany


Presenting Author: Roy Eagleson

Abstract: We present a prototype of a system in development for pre-operative planning. The proposed NeuroTable uses a combination of traditional rendering and novel visualization techniques rendered to facilitate real-time collaboration between neurosurgeons during intervention planning. A set of multimodal 2D and 3D renderings convey the relation between the region of interest and the surrounding anatomical structures. A haptic device is used for interaction with the NeuroTable to facilitate immersive control over the 3D cursor and navigation modes for the neurosurgeons during their discourse of planning. A pilot experimental study was conducted to assess the performance of users in targeting points within the preoperative 3D scan. Then, two clinicians participated in the evaluation of the table in discussing and planning a case. Results indicate that the NeuroTable facilitated the discourse and we discuss the results of the speed and accuracy for the specification of entry and target points.


Wednesday 14


Investigating the Impact of Perturbed Visual and Proprioceptive information in Near-Field Immersive Virtual Environment


Elham Ebrahimi, Clemson University

Bliss M. Altenhoff, Clemson University

Christopher C. Pagano, Clemson University

Sabarish V. Babu, Clemson University

J. Adam Jones, Clemson University


Presenting Author: Elham Ebrahimi

Abstract: We report the results of an empirical evaluation to examine the carryover effects of calibrations to one of three perturbations of visual and proprioceptive feedback: i) Minus condition (-20% gain) in which a visual stylus appeared at 80% of the distance of a physical stylus, ii) Neutral condition (0% gain) in which a visual stylus was co-located with a physical stylus, and iii) Plus condition (+20% gain) in which the visual stylus appeared at 120% of the distance of the physical stylus. Feedback was shown to calibrate distance judgments quickly within an IVE, with estimates being farthest after calibrating to visual information appearing nearer (Minus condition), and nearest after calibrating to visual information appearing further (Plus condition). 



Wednesday 15


Using Augmented Reality to Support Situated Analytics


Neven ElSayed - University of South Australia    

Bruce Thomas - University of South Australia    

Ross Smith - University of South Australia    

Kim Marriott - Monash University        

Julia Piantadosi - University of South Australia    


Presenting Author: Neven A. M. ElSayed

Abstract: We draw from the domains of Visual Analytics and Augmented Reality to support a new form of in-situ interactive visual analysis. We present a Situated Analytics model, a novel interaction, and a visualization concept for reasoning support. Situated Analytics has four primary elements: situated information, abstract information, augmented reality interaction, and analytical interaction.


Wednesday 16


Vision-based Multi-Person Foot Tracking for CAVE Systems with Under-Floor Projection


Sebastian Freitag - Virtual Reality Group, RWTH Aachen University              

Sebastian Schmitz - RWTH Aachen University           

Torsten W. Kuhlen - Virtual Reality Group, RWTH Aachen University              


Presenting Author: Sebastian Freitag

Abstract: In this work, we present an approach for tracking the feet of multiple users in CAVE-like systems with under-floor projection. It is based on low-cost consumer cameras, does not require users to wear additional equipment, and can be installed without modifying existing components. If the brightness of the floor projection does not contain too much variation, the feet of several people can be reliably tracked and assigned to individuals.



Wednesday 17


Effects and Applicability of Rotation Gain in CAVE-like Environments


Sebastian Freitag - Virtual Reality Group, RWTH Aachen University              

Benjamin Weyers - Virtual Reality Group, RWTH Aachen University              

Torsten W. Kuhlen - Virtual Reality Group, RWTH Aachen University              


Presenting Author: Sebastian Freitag

Abstract: In this work, we report on a pilot study we conducted, and on a study design, to examine the effects and applicability of rotation gain in CAVE-like virtual environments. The results of the study will give recommendations for the maximum levels of rotation gain that are reasonable in algorithms for enlarging the virtual field of regard or redirected walking.


Wednesday 18


flapAssist: How the integration of VR and Visualization Tools fosters the factory planning process


Sascha Gebhardt - RWTH Aachen University           

Sebastian Pick - RWTH Aachen University           

Hanno Voet - RWTH Aachen University           

Julian Utsch - RWTH Aachen University           

Toufik al Khawli - Fraunhofer ILT 

Urs Eppelt - Fraunhofer ILT 

Rudolf Reinhard - RWTH Aachen University           

Christian Büscher - RWTH Aachen University           

Bernd Hentschel - RWTH Aachen University           

Torsten W. Kuhlen - Jülich Supercomputing Centre 


Presenting Author: Sascha Gebhardt

Abstract: Virtual Reality (VR) systems are of growing importance to aid decision support in factory planning. While current solutions either focus on virtual walkthroughs or the visualization of more abstract information, a solution that provides both, does currently not exist. To close this gap, we present a holistic VR application, called flapAssist. It is meant to serve as a platform for planning the layout of factories, while also providing a wide range of analysis features. By being scalable from desktops to CAVEs and providing a link to a central integration platform, flapAssist integrates well in established factory planning workflows.


Wednesday 19


An Immersive Labyrinth


Copper Giloth - University of Massachusetts    

Jonathan Tanant - JonLab 


Presenting Author: Copper Frances Giloth

Abstract: We have developed a 3D VR digital heritage App providing a virtual experience of an elaborate labyrinth that existed in the gardens of the Chateau de Versailles in the 17th and 18th centuries. We are now taking this App into an immersive environment (using an Oculus Rift headset); we will report on the progress of and conclusions from this porting process.


Wednesday 20


Towards Context-Sensitive Reorientation for Real Walking in Virtual Reality


Timofey Grechkin - USC Institute for Creative Technologies              

Mahdi Azmandian - USC Institute for Creative Technologies              

Mark Bolas - USC Institute for Creative Technologies              

Evan Suma - USC Institute for Creative Technologies              


Presenting Author:

Abstract: Redirected walking techniques help overcome physical limitations for natural locomotion in virtual reality. Though subtle perceptual manipulations are helpful, it is inevitable that users will approach critical boundary limits. Current solutions to this problem involve breaks in presence by introducing distractors, or freezing the virtual world relative to the user’s perspective. We propose an approach that integrates into the virtual world narrative to draw users’ attention and cause them to temporarily alter their course to avoid going off bounds. This method ties together unnoticeable translation, rotation, and curvature gains, efficiently reorienting the user while maintaining the user’s sense of immersion.


Wednesday 21


Incorporating D3.js Information Visualization into Immersive Virtual Environments


Wesley Griffin - National Institute of Standards and Technology              

Danny Catacora - National Institute of Standards and Technology              

Steven Satterfield - National Institute of Standards and Technology              

Jeffrey Bullard - National Institute of Standards and Technology              

Judith Terrill - National Institute of Standards and Technology              


Presenting Author: Wesley Griffin

Abstract: We have created an integrated interactive visualization and analysis environment that can be used immersively or on the desktop to study a simulation of microstructure development during hydration or degradation of cement pastes and concrete. Our environment combines traditional 3D scientific data visualization with 2D information visualization using D3.js running in a web browser. By incorporating D3.js, our visualization allowed the scientist to quickly diagnose and debug errors in the parallel implementation of the simulation.


Wednesday 22


Using Interactive Virtual Characters in Social Neuroscience


Joanna Hale - University College London         

Xueni Pan - University College London         

Antonia F. de C. Hamilton - University College London         



Presenting Author: Xueni Pan

Abstract: Recent advances in the technical ability to build realistic and interactive Virtual Environments have allowed neuroscientists to study social cognition and behavior in virtual reality. This is particularly useful in the study of social neuroscience, where the physical appearance and motion of Virtual Characters can be fully controlled. In this work, we present the design, implementation, and preliminary results of two case studies exploring different types of social cognition (congruency effect and mimicry) using interactive Virtual Characters animated with either real-time streamed or pre-recorded motion captured data.


Wednesday 23


Towards A High Fidelity Simulation of the Kidney Biopsy Procedure


Gareth Henshall, Bangor University

Serban Pop, Bangor University

Marc Edwards, Bangor University

Llyr ap Cenydd, Bangor University

Nigel John, Bangor University


Presenting Author: Gareth Henshall

Abstract: Work in progress for the development of a novel virtual training environment for training a kidney biopsy procedure is presented. Our goal is to provide an affordable high fidelity simulation through the integration of some of the latest off-the-shelf technology components. The range of forces that are encountered during this procedure have been recorded using a custom designed force sensitive glove and then applied within the simulation.


Wdnesday 24


AR-SSVEP for Brain-Machine Interface: Estimating User's Gaze in Head-mounted Display with USB camera


Shuto Horii - Toyohashi University of Technology     

Shigeki Nakauchi - Toyohashi University of Technology     

Michiteru Kitazaki - Toyohashi University of Technology     


Presenting Author: Shuto Horii

Abstract: We aim to develop a brain-machine interface (BMI) system that estimates user's gaze or attention on an object to pick it up in the real world with augmented reality technology. We measured steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) using luminance and/or contrast modulated flickers of photographic scenes presented on a head-mounted display (HMD), and then measured SSVEP using luminance and contrast modulated flickers at AR-markers in real scenes that were online captured by a USB camera and presented on the HMD. We obtained significantly good performance for future application to online estimation of gaze.


Wednesday 25


Five Senses Theatre Project: Sharing Experiences through Bodily Ultra-Reality


Yasushi Ikei - Tokyo Metro Univ         

Seiya Shimabukuro - Tokyo Metro Univ         

Shunki Kato - Tokyo Metro Univ         

Kohei Komase - Tokyo Metro Univ         

Yujiro Okuya - Tokyo Metro Univ         

Koichi Hirota - U-Tokyo             

Michiteru Kitazaki - Toyohashi University of Technology     

Tomohiro Amemiya - NTT       


Presenting Author: Yasushi Ikei

Abstract: The Five Senses Theatre project was established for the development of a basic technology that enables the user to relive a spatial motion of other persons as if the user him/her-self experienced it in person. This technology aims to duplicate a bodily experience performed in the real space and to pass it to the other person. The system creates the sensation of a self-body motion by multisensory stimulation, specifically vestibular and proprioception, provided to the real body passively. A walking for a sightseeing and a legend run of a top athlete were the first examples of spatial experience copy.


Wednesday 26


Robust Enhancement of Depth Images from Kinect Sensor


ABM Tariqul Islam - PhD Student, Visual Computing Lab, University of Rostock, Germany  

Christian Scheel - PhD Student, Visual Computing Lab, University of Rostock, Germany  

Renato Pajarola - Professor, Visualization and MultiMedia Lab, University of Zürich, Switzerland               

Oliver Staadt - Professor, Visual Computing Lab, University of Rostock, Germany        


Presenting Author: ABM Tariqul Islam

Abstract: We propose a new method to fill missing/invalid values in depth images generated from the Kinect depth sensor. To fill the missing depth values, we use a robust least median of squares (LMedS) approach. We apply our method for telepresence environments, where Kinects are used very often for reconstructing the captured scene in 3D. We introduce a modified 1D LMedS approach for efficient traversal of consecutive image frames. Our approach solves the unstable nature of depth values in static scenes that is perceived as flickering. We obtain very good result both for static and moving objects inside a scene.


Wednesday 27


Desktop Versions of the String-based Haptic Interface- SPIDAR


Anusha Jayasiri - Tokyo Institute of technology  

Shuhan Ma - Tokyo Institute of technology  

Yihan Qian - Tokyo Institute of technology  

Katsuhito Akahane - Tokyo Institute of technology  

Makoto Sato - Tokyo Institute of technology  


Presenting Author: Shuhan Ma

Abstract: There is a vast development and significant involvement of haptic interfaces in the world for virtual reality applications. SPIDAR, which stands for `SPace Interface Device for Artificial Reality`, is a string-based, friendly human interface on the Sato Makoto Laboratory in the Tokyo Institute of Technology can be used in various types of virtual reality applications for simple pick and place tasks to more complicated physical interactions in virtual worlds. Among the family of SPIDAR devices, here we introduce the research and development of some desktop versions of SPIDAR haptic interfaces called SPIDAR-G, SPIDAR-I and SPIDAR-mouse.


Wednesday 28


Registeration and Projection method of tumor region projection for breast cancer surgery assistance


Motoko Kanegae, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University

Jun Morita, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University

Sho Shimamura, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University

Yuji Uema, Graduate School of Media Design, Keio University

Maiko Takahashi, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Keio University

Masahiko Inami, Graduate School of Media Design, Keio University

Tetsu Hayashida, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Keio University

Maki Sugimoto, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University


Presenting Author: Jun Morita

Abstract: This paper introduces a registration and projection method for directly projecting the tumor region for breast cancer surgery assistance based on the breast procedure of our collaborating doctor. We investigated the steps of the breast cancer procedure of our collaborating doctor and how it can be applied for tumor region projection. We propose a novel way of MRI acquisition so we may correlate the MRI coordinates to the patient in the real world. By calculating the transformation matrix from the MRI coordinates and the coordinates from the markers that is on the patient, we are able to register the acquired MRI data to the patient. Our registration and presentation method of the tumor region was then evaluated by medical doctors.


Wednesday 29


3D Node Localization from Node-to-Node Distance Information using Cross-Entropy Method


Shohei Ukawa - Osaka Univ.      

Tatsuya Shinada - Osaka Univ.      

Masanori Hashimoto - Osaka Univ.      

Yuichi Itoh - Osaka Univ.      

Takao Onoye - Osaka Univ.      


Presenting Author: Shohei Ukawa

Abstract: This paper proposes a 3D node localization method that uses cross-entropy method for the 3D modeling system.The proposed localization method statistically estimates the most probable positions overcoming measurement errors through iterative sample generation and evaluation. The generated samples are evaluated in parallel, and then a significant speedup can be obtained. We also demonstrate that the iterative sample generation and evaluation performed in parallel are highly compatible with interactive node movement.


Wednesday 1


BlenderVR: Open-source framework for interactive and immersive VR


Brian F.G. Katz - LIMSI-CNRS      

Dalai Q. Felinto - LIMSI-CNRS      

Damien Touraine - LIMSI-CNRS      

David Poirier-Quinot - LIMSI-CNRS      

Patrick Bourdot - LIMSI-CNRS      


Presenting Author: Dalai Felinto

Abstract: BlenderVR is an open-source framework for interactive/immersive applications based on extending the Blender Game Engine to Virtual Reality. BlenderVR (a generalization of BlenderCAVE) now addresses additional platforms (e.g., HMD, video-walls). BlenderVR provides a flexible easy to use framework for the creation of VR applications for various platforms, employing the power of the BGE graphics rendering and physics engines. Compatible with 3 major Operating Systems, BlenderVR is developed by VR researchers with support from the Blender Community. BlenderVR currently handles multi-screen/multi-user tracked stereoscopic rendering through efficient master/slave synchronization with external multimodal interactions via OSC and VRPN protocols.


Thursday 1


Scalable Metadata In- and Output for Multi-platform Data Annotation Applications


Sebastian Pick - Virtual Reality Group, RWTH Aachen University

Sascha Gebhardt - Virtual Reality Group, RWTH Aachen University

Bernd Hentschel - Virtual Reality Group, RWTH Aachen University

Torsten W. Kuhlen - Virtual Reality Group, RWTH Aachen University


Presenting Author:  Sebastian Pick

Abstract: Metadata in- and output are important steps within the data annotation process. However, selecting techniques that effectively facilitate these steps is non-trivial, especially for applications that have to run on multiple virtual reality platforms. Not all techniques are applicable to or available on every system, requiring to adapt workflows on a per-system basis. Here, we describe a metadata handling system based on Android's Intent system that automatically adapts workflows and thereby makes manual adaption needless.


Thursday 2


An Experimental Study on the Virtual Representation of Children


Ranchida Khantong - University College London         

Xueni Pan - University College London         

Mel Slater - University College London         


Presenting Author: Xueni Pan

Abstract: Is it their movements or appearance that helps us to identify a child as a child? We created four video clips with a Virtual Character walking, but with different combinations of either child or adult animation applied on either a child or adult body. An experimental study was conducted with 53 participants who viewed all four videos in random orders. They also reported higher level of empathy, care, and feeling of protection towards the child character as compared to the adult character. Moreover, compared to appearance, animation seems to be playing a bigger role in invoking participants’ emotional responses.


Thursday 3


Human-Avatar Interaction and Recognition Memory according to Interaction Types and Methods


Mingyu Kim - Hanyang University       

Woncheol Jang - Hanyang University       

Kwanguk (Kenny) Kim - Hanyang University       


Presenting Author: Mingyu Kim

Abstract: For the several decades, researchers studied human-avatar interactions using a virtual reality (VR). However, speculation on the interaction between a human’s recognition memory and interaction types/methods has not enough considered yet. In the current study, we designed a VR interaction paradigm with two different types of interaction including initiating and responding, and we also included two interaction methods including head-gazing and hand-pointing. The result indicated that there are significant differences in the recognition memory between the initiating and responding interactions. These results suggest that the human-avatar interaction may have similar patterns with the human-human interaction in the recognition memory.


Thursday 4


Dynamic Hierarchical Virtual Button-based Hand Interaction for Wearable AR


Hyejin Kim - Korea Institute of Science and Technology        

Elisabeth Adelia Widjojo - Korea Institute of Science and Technology        

Jae-In Hwang - Korea Institute of Science and Technology        


Presenting Author: Hyejin Kim

Abstract: This paper presents a novel bare-hand interaction method for wearable AR (augmented reality). The suggested method is using hierarchical virtual buttons which are placed on the image target. Therefore, we can provide precise hand interaction on the image target surface (while using wearable AR). The method operates on a wearable AR system and uses an image target tracker to make occlusion-based interaction button. We introduce the hierarchical virtual button method which is adequate for more precise and faster interaction with augmented objects.


Thursday 5


3D Position Measurement of Planar Photo Detector Using Gradient Patterns


Tatsuya Kodera, Keio University

Maki Sugimoto, Keio University

Ross Smith, The University of South Australia

Bruce Thomas, The University of South Australia


Presenting Author: Tatsuya Kodera

Abstract: We propose a three dimensional position measurement method employing planar photo detectors to calibrate a Spatial Augmented Reality system of unknown geometry. In Spatial Augmented Reality, projectors overlay images onto an object in the physical environment. For this purpose, the alignment of the images and physical objects is required. Traditional camera based 3D position tracking systems, such as multi-camera motion capture systems, detect the positions of optical markers in two-dimensional image plane of each camera device, so those systems require multiple camera devices at known locations to obtain 3D position of the markers. We introduce a detection method of 3D position of a planar photo detector by projecting gradient patterns. The main contribution of our method is to realize an alignment of the projected images with the physical objects and measuring the geometry of the objects simultaneously for Spatial Augmented Reality applications.


Thursday 6


What Can We Feel on the Back of the Tablet? -- A Thin Mechanism to Display Two Dimensional Motion on the Back and Its Characteristics –


Itsuo Kumazawa - Imaging Science and Engineering Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology    

Minori Takao - Imaging Science and Engineering Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology    

Yusuke Sasaki - Imaging Science and Engineering Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology    

Shunsuke Ono - Imaging Science and Engineering Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology    


Presenting Author: Itsuo Kumazawa

Abstract: The front surface of the tablet computer is dominated by a touch screen and used mostly to display visual information. Under the design, use of the rear surface of the tablet for tactile display is promising as the fingers holding the tablet constantly touch it and feel the feedback steadily. In this paper, a slim design of tactile feedback mechanism that can be easily installed on the back of existing tablets is given and its mechanical performance regarding electricity consumption, latency and force is evaluated. Human capability in perceiving the tactile information on the display is also evaluated.


Thursday 7


Cooperation in Virtual Environments with Individual Views


Vincent Küszter - Technische Universität Chemnitz           

Guido Brunnett - Technische Universität Chemnitz           

Daniel Pietschmann - Technische Universität Chemnitz           


Presenting Author: Vincent Küszter

Abstract: When users are interacting collaboratively in a virtual environment it cannot be guaranteed that every user has the same input device or that they have access to the same information. Our research aims at understanding the effects of such asymmetries on the user embodiment in collaborative virtual environments (CVEs). In order to do this, we have developed a prototyping platform for cooperative interaction between two users. To change the information a user has, we are incorporating "special views" for each person. Also, an easily expandable array of input devices is supported.


Thursday 8


Interaction with Virtual Agents – Comparison of the participants’ experience between an IVR and a semi-IVR system


Marios Kyriakou - Department of Computer Science, University of Cyprus             

Xueni Pan - Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London             

Yiorgos Chrysanthou - Department of Computer Science, University of Cyprus             


Presenting Author: Marios Kyriakou

Abstract: Is our behavior and experience the same in both IVR and in semi-IVR systems when we navigate through a virtual environment populated with virtual agents? Using experiments we show that is more important for the semi-IVR systems to facilitate collision avoidance between the users and the virtual agents accompanied with basic interaction between them. This can increase the sense of presence and make the virtual agents and the environment appear more realistic and lifelike.


Thursday 9


Multiple Devices as Windows for Virtual Environment


Jooyoung Lee - Konkuk University         

Hasup Lee - Konkuk University         

BoYu Gao - Konkuk University         

HyungSeok Kim - Konkuk University         

Jee-In Kim - Konkuk University         


Presenting Author: Jooyoung Lee

Abstract: We introduce a method for using multiple devices as windows for interacting with 3-D virtual environment. Provided with life size virtual environment, each device shows a scene of 3-D virtual space on its position and direction. By adopting mobile device to our system, users not only see outer space of stationary screen by relocating their mobile device, but also have personalized view in working space. To acquiring knowledge of device’s pose and orientation, we adopt vision-based approaches. For the last, we introduce an implementation of a system for managing multiple device and letting them have synchronized performance.


Thursday 10


Synthesis of Omnidirectional Movie using a Set of Key Frame Panoramic Images


Roberto Lopez-Gulliver - Ritsumeikan University               

Takahiro Hatamoto - Ritsumeikan University               

Kohei Matsumura - Ritsumeikan University               

Haruo Noma - Ritsumeikan University               


Presenting Author: Roberto Lopez-Gulliver

Abstract: We aim to provide an interactive and entertaining environment for users to better enjoy and stay motivated during indoor training. We are now developing a virtual treadmill-based training system allowing users to experience walking or running around various real scenes. A set of key frame 360-degree panoramic images on a grid are used to synthesize, in real-time, an omnidirectional movie for any possible path the user takes. The playback smoothness of the synthesized movie depends on the separation (grid pitch) between key frames. Preliminary experimental results help us determine the largest playback pitch without compromising playback smoothness.


Thursday 11


The Influence of Virtual Reality and Mixed Reality Environments com-bined with two different Navigation Methods on Presence


Mario Lorenz, Institute for Machine Tools and Production Processes, Technische Universität Chemnitz

Marc Busch, Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH

Loukas Rentzos, Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems and Automation, University of Patras

Manfred Tscheligi, Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH

Philipp Klimant, Institute for Machine Tools and Production Processes, Technische Universität Chemnitz

Peter Fröhlich, Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH


Presenting Author: Mario Lorenz

Abstract: For various VR/MR/AR applications, such as virtual usability studies, it is very important that the participants have the feeling that they are really in the environment. This feeling of "being" in a mediated environment is described as presence. Two important factors that influence presence are the level of immersion and the navigation method. We developed two navigation methods to simulate natural walking using a Wii Balance Board and a Kinect Sensor. In this preliminary study we examined the effects of these navigation methods and the level of immersion on the participants' perceived presence in a 2x2 factorial between-subjects study with 32 participants in two different VEs (Powerwall and Mixed-Reality-See-Through-Glasses). The results indicate that reported presence is higher for the Kinect navigation and Powerwall for some facets of presence.


Thursday 12


Avatar Embodiment Realism and Virtual Fitness Training


Jean-Luc Lugrin - Universität Würzburg, Würzburg, GERMANY    

Maximilian Landeck - Universität Würzburg, Würzburg, GERMANY    

Marc Erich Latoschik - Universität Würzburg, Würzburg, GERMANY    


Presenting Author: Marc Erich Latoschik

Abstract: In this paper we present a preliminary study of the impact of avatar realism on illusion of virtual body ownership (IVBO), when using a full body virtual mirror for fitness training. We evaluated three main types of user representation: realistic and non-realistic avatars as well as no avatar at all. Our results revealed that same-gender realistic human avatar elicited a slightly higher level of illusion and performance. However qualitative analysis of open questions revealed that the feeling of power was higher with non-realistic strong-looking avatars.


Thursday 13


Avatar Anthropomorphism and Illusion of Body Ownership in VR


Jean-Luc Lugrin, University of Wuerzburg

Johanna Latt, University of Wuerzburg

Marc Erich Latoschik, University of Wuerzburg


Presenting Author: Marc Erich Latoschik

Abstract: In this paper we present a novel experiment to explore the impact of avatar realism on the illusion of virtual body ownership (IVBO) in immersive virtual environments, with full-body avatar embodiment and freedom of movement. We evaluated four distinct avatars (a humanoid robot, a block-man, and both male and female human adult) presenting an increasing level of anthropomorphism in their detailed compositions (specific body's part's shape, scale, dimension, surface topology, texture and colour). Our results revealed that each avatar elicited a relatively high level of illusion. However both machine-like and cartoon-like avatars elicited an equivalent IVBO, slightly superior to the human-ones. A realistic human appearance is therefore not a critical top-down factor of IVBO, and could lead to an Uncanny Valley effect.


Thursday 14


Influence of Avatar Realism on Stressful Situation in VR


Jean-Luc Lugrin - Universität Würzburg, Würzburg, GERMANY    

Maximilian Wiedemann - Universität Würzburg, Würzburg, GERMANY    

Daniel Bieberstein - Universität Würzburg, Würzburg, GERMANY    

Marc Erich Latoschik - Universität Würzburg, Würzburg, GERMANY


Presenting Author: Marc Erich Latoschik

Abstract: In this paper we present a study of the impact of avatar realism on user experience and performance in stressful immersive virtual environments. We evaluated a stressful and a stress-free environment with partial avatar embodiment under low (iconic) or high (photo- realistic) visual fidelity conditions. An experiment with forty participants did not reveal any significant differences between both graphical versions. This first result represents an interesting find- ing since non realistic avatar and environment representations are faster and more economical to produce while requiring less computational resources.


Thursday 15


Extending Touch-less Interaction on Vision Based Wearable Device


Zhihan Lv - Chinese Academy of Science    

Liangbing Feng - Chinese Academy of Science    

Shengzhong Feng - Chinese Academy of Science    

Haibo Li - Royal Institute of Technology (KTH)      


Presenting Author: Zhihan Lv

Abstract: A touch-less interaction technology on vision based wearable device is designed and evaluated. Users interact with the application with dynamic hands/feet gestures in front of the camera, which triggers the interaction event to interact with the virtual object in the scene. Several proof-of-concept prototypes with eleven dynamic gestures are developed based on the touch-less interaction. At last, a comparing user study evaluation is proposed to demonstrate the usability of the touch-less approach, as well as the impact on user’s emotion, running on a wearable framework or Google Glass.


Thursday 16


Blind in a Virtual World: Using Sensory Substitution for Generically Increasing the Accesibilty of Graphical Virtual Environments


Shachar Maidenbaum, HUJI

Sami Abboud, HUJI

Galit Buchs, HUJI

Amir Amedi, HUJI


Presenting Author: Shachar Maidenbaum

Abstract: Graphical virtual environments are currently far from accessible to the blind as most of their content is visual. While several previous environment-specific tools have indeed increased accessibility to specific environments they do not offer a generic solution. This is especially unfortunate as such environments hold great potential for the blind, e.g., for safe orientation and learning. Visual-to-audio Sensory Substitution Devices (SSDs) can potentially increase their accessibility in such a generic fashion by sonifying the on-screen content regardless of the specific environment. Using SSDs also taps into the skills gained from using these same SSDs for completely different tasks, including in the real world. However, whether congenitally blind users will be able to use this information to perceive and interact successfully virtually is currently unclear. We tested this using the EyeMusic SSD, which conveys shape and color information, to perform virtual tasks otherwise not possible without vision. We show that these tasks can be accomplished by the congenitally blind.


Thursday 17


I Built It! - Exploring the effects of Customizable Virtual Humans on Adolescents with ASD


Chao Mei, University of Texas at San Antonio

Lee Mason, University of Texas at San Antonio

John Quarles, University of Texas at San Antonio


Presenting Author: Chao Mei

Abstract: Virtual Reality (VR) training games have many potential benefits for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) therapy, such as increasing motivation and improving the abilities of performing daily living activities. Persons with ASD often have deficits in hand-eye coordination, which makes many activities of daily living difficult. A VR game that trains hand-eye coordination could help users with ASD improve their quality of life. Moreover, incorporating users' interests into the game could be a good way to build a motivating game for users with ASD. We propose a Customizable Virtual Human (CVH) which enables users with ASD to easily customize a virtual human and then interact with the CVH in a 3D task. Specifically, we investigated the effects of CVHs with a VR hand-eye coordination training game - Imagination Soccer - and conducted a user study on adolescents with high functioning ASD. We compared the differences of participants' 3D interaction performances, game performances and user experiences (i.e. presence, involvement, and flow) under CVH and Non-customizable Virtual Human (NCVH) conditions. The results indicate that CVHs could effectively improve performance in 3D interaction tasks (i.e., blocking a soccer ball) for users with ASD, motivate them to play the game more, and offer a better user experience.


Thursday 18


The Effects of Olfaction on Training Transfer for an Assembly Task


Alec Moore, University of Texas at Dallas

Nicolas Herrera, University of Texas at Dallas

Tyler Hurst, University of Texas at Dallas

Ryan McMahan, University of Texas at Dallas

Sandra Poeschl, TU Ilmenau


Presenting Author: Ryan P. McMahan

Abstract: Context-dependent memory studies have indicated that olfaction, the sense of smell, has a special odor memory that can significantly improve recall in some cases. Virtual reality (VR), which has been investigated as a training tool, could feasibly benefit from odor memory by incorporating olfactory stimuli. There have been a few studies on this concept for semantic learning, but not for procedural training. To address this gap in knowledge, we investigated the effects of olfaction on the transfer of knowledge from training to next-day execution for building a complex LEGO jet-plane model. Our results indicate that the pleasantness of an odor significantly affects training transfer more than whether the encoding and recall contexts match.


Thursday 19


MRI Overlay System Using Optical See-Through for Marking Assistance


Jun Morita - Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University

Sho Shimamura - Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University

Motoko Kanegae - Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University

Yuji Uema - Graduate School of Media Design, Keio University

Maiko Takahashi - Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Keio University

Masahiko Inami - Graduate School of Media Design, Keio University

Tetsu Hayashida - Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Keio University

Maki Sugimoto - Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University


Presenting Author:  Jun Morita

Abstract: In this paper we propose an augmented reality system that superimposes MRI onto the patient model. We use a half-silvered mirror and a handheld device to superimpose the MRI onto the patient model. By tracking the coordinates of the patient model and the handheld device using optical markers, we are able to transform the images to the correlated position. Voxel data of the MRI are made so that the user is able to view the MRI from many different angles.


Thursday 20


Continuous Automatic Calibration for Optical See-Through Displays


Kenneth Moser - Mississippi State University       

Yuta Itoh - Technical University Munich     

J. Edward Swan II - Mississippi State University       


Presenting Author: Kenneth Moser

Abstract: The current advent of consumer level optical see-through (OST) head-mounted displays (HMD's) has greatly broadened the accessibility of Augmented Reality (AR) to not only researchers but also the general public as well. This increased user base heightens the need for robust automatic calibration mechanisms suited for non-technical users. We are developing a fully automated calibration system for two stereo OST HMD's based on the recently introduced interaction free display calibration (INDICA) method. Our current efforts are also focused on the development of an evaluation process to assess the performance of the system during use by non-expert subjects.


Thursday 21


Comparing the Performance of Natural, Semi-Natural, and Non-Natural Locomotion Techniques in Virtual Reality


Mahdi Nabiyouni, Center for Human-Computer Interaction and Department of Computer Science, Virginia Tech

Ayshwarya Saktheeswaran, Center for Human-Computer Interaction and Department of Computer Science, Virginia Tech

Doug Bowman, Center for Human-Computer Interaction and Department of Computer Science, Virginia Tech

Ambika Karanth, Center for Human-Computer Interaction and Department of Computer Science, Virginia Tech


Abstract: One of the goals of much virtual reality (VR) research is to increase realism. In particular, many techniques for locomotion in VR attempt to approximate real-world walking. However, it is not yet fully understood how the design of more realistic locomotion techniques affects user task performance. We performed an experiment to compare a semi-natural locomotion technique (based on the Virtusphere device) with a traditional, non-natural technique (based on a game controller) and a fully natural technique (real walking). We found that the Virtusphere technique was significantly slower and less accurate than both of the other techniques. Based on this result and others in the literature, we speculate that locomotion techniques with moderate interaction fidelity will often have performance inferior to both high-fidelity techniques and well-designed low-fidelity techniques. We argue that our experimental results are an effect of interaction fidelity, and perform an analysis of the fidelity of the three locomotion techniques to support this argument.


Thursday 22


Implementation of on-site virtual time machine for mobile devices


Junichi Nakano - The University of Tokyo              

Takuji Narumi - The University of Tokyo              

Tomohiro Tanikawa - The University of Tokyo              

Michitaka His - The University of Tokyo              


Presenting Author: Junichi Nakano

Abstract: We developed a system for mobile devices designed to provide a virtual experience of past scenery depicted in old photographs by superimposing them on landscapes in video see-through frames. A user is asked to capture a photograph of a landscape and enter correspondence points between the new and old photos. The old photograph is deformed by projective transformation based on correspondence points. We then superimpose of the old photograph onto video see-through frames of current landscape. To achieve real-time and robust superimposition on mobile devices, both motion-sensor-based pose information and camera-image-keypoint-tracking-based pose information is used for device's camera pose tracking.


Thursday 23


The Effect of Head Mounted Display Weight and Locomotion Method on the Perceived Naturalness of Virtual Walking Speeds


Niels Christian Nilsson - Aalborg University Copenhagen

Stefania Serafin - Aalborg University Copenhagen

Rolf Nordahl - Aalborg University Copenhagen


Presenting Author: Niels Christian Nilsson

Abstract: This poster details a study investigating the effect of Head Mounted Display (HMD) weight and locomotion method (Walking-In-Place and treadmill walking) on the perceived naturalness of virtual walking speeds. The results revealed significant main effects of movement type, but no significant effects of HMD weight were identified.


Thursday 24


Third person's footsteps enhanced walking sensation of seated person


Yujiro Okuya - Tokyo Metropolitan University

Yasushi Ikei - Tokyo Metropolitan University

Tomohiro Amemiya - NTT       

Koichi Hirota - The University of Tokyo              


Presenting Author: Yujiro Okuya

Abstract: We developed an audio-tactile display system to evoke pseudo-walking sensation to a sitting participant. The vibration was added to the heel and toe to imitate cutaneous sensation of the sole during walking. As the auditory stimulus, the sounds of own and another walker's footsteps were provided to the participants through headphones. Only another walker's sound was moved along several trajectories in a VR space. As the result of an experiment conducted to elucidate a sense of walking, third person's sound enhanced not only walking sensation but also translational sensation of a sitting participant.


Thursday 25


Does Vibrotactile Intercommunication Increase Collaboration?


Victor Adriel Oliveira - UFRGS 

Anderson Maciel - UFRGS 

Wilson Sarmiento - Universidad del Cauca 

Luciana Nedel - UFRGS 

César Collazos - Universidad del Cauca 


Presenting Author: Victor Adriel de J. Oliveira

Abstract: Communication is a fundamental process in collaborative work. In natural conditions, communication between team members is multimodal. This allows for redundancy, adaptation to different contexts, and different levels of focus. In collaborative virtual environments, however, hardware limitations and lack of appropriate interaction metaphors reduce the amount of collaboration. In this poster, we propose the design and use of a vibrotactile language to improve user intercommunication in CVE and, consequently, to increase the amount of effective collaboration.


Thursday 26


Coupled-Clay: Physical-Virtual 3D Collaborative Interaction Environment


Kasım Özacar - Research Institute of Electrical Communication               

Takuma Hagiwara - Research Institute of Electrical Communication               

Jiawei Huang - Research Institute of Electrical Communication               

Kazuki Takashima - Research Institute of Electrical Communication               

Yoshifumi Kitamura - Research Institute of Electrical Communication               


Presenting Author: Kasım Özacar

Abstract: Coupled-clay is a bi-directional 3D collaborative interactive environment that enables 3D modeling work between groups of users at two remote spaces; the Physical Interaction Space and the Virtual Interaction Space. The physical Interaction Space enables a user to directly manipulate a physical object whose shape and position are precisely tracked. The shape is transferred to the virtual interaction space where users observe the virtual shape which corresponds to the physical object, and manipulate its geometrical and graphical attributes using a multi-user stereoscopic tabletop display. The manipulations are reflected to the physical object by a robotic arm and a top-mounted projector.


Thursday 27


GPU-accelerated Attention Map Generation for Dynamic 3D Scenes


Thies Pfeiffer, CITEC, Faculty of Technology, Bielefeld University

Cem Memili, Faculty of Technology, Bielefeld University


Presenting Author: Thies Pfeiffer

Abstract: Measuring visual attention has become an important tool during product development. Attention maps are important qualitative visualizations to communicate results within the team and to stakeholders. We have developed a GPU-accelerated approach which allows for real-time generation of attention maps for 3D models that can, e.g., be used for on-the-fly visualizations of visual attention distributions and for the generation of heat-map textures for offline high-quality renderings. The presented approach is unique in that it works with monocular and binocular data, respects the depth of focus, can handle moving objects and is ready to be used for selective rendering.


Thursday 28


A Procedure for Accurate Calibration of a Tabletop Haploscope AR Environment


Nate Phillips - Mississippi State University       

J. Swan - Mississippi State University       



Presenting Author: Nate Phillips

Abstract: In previous papers, we have reported a novel haploscope-based augmented reality (AR) display system. The haploscope allows us to precisely set various optical display parameters, in order to study the interaction between optical and graphical display properties on such perceptual issues as depth presentation. While using the haploscope, it became clear that we needed to develop novel calibration procedures, both because of the novelty of the haploscope’s optical design, and also because of the required accuracy on the order of 1 mm. This poster proposes novel calibration procedures based on the use of perpendicular laser fans.


Friday 1


Using Astigmatism in Wide Angle HMDs to Improve Rendering


Daniel Pohl, Intel Corporation

Timo Bolkart, Saarland University

Stefan Nickels, Intel Visual Computing Institute

Oliver Grau, Intel Corporation


Presenting Author: Daniel Pohl

Abstract: Lenses in modern consumer HMDs introduce distortions like astigmatism: only the center area of the displayed content can be perceived sharp while with increasing distance from the center the image gets out of focus. We show with three new approaches that this undesired side effect can be used in a positive way to save calculations in blurry areas. For example, using sampling maps to lower the detail in areas where the image is blurred through astigmatism, increases performance by a factor of 2 to 3. Further, we introduce a new calibration of user-specific viewing parameters that increase the performance by about 20-75%.


Friday 2


Shark Punch: A Virtual Reality Game for Aquatic Rehabilitation


John Quarles, University of Texas at San Antonio


Presenting Author: John Quarles

Abstract: We present a novel underwater VR game - Shark Punch - in which the user must fend off a virtual Great White shark with real punches in a real underwater environment. This poster presents our underwater VR system and our iterative design process through field tests with a user with disabilities. We conclude with proposed usability,accessibility, and system design guidelines for future underwater VR rehabilitation games.


Friday 3


Real-time SLAM for static multi-objects learning and tracking applied to augmented reality applications


Datta Ramadasan, Institut Pascal

Marc Chevaldonne, ISIT

Thierry Chateau, Institut Pascal


Presenting Author: Ramadasan

Abstract: This paper presents a new approach for multi-objects tracking from a video camera moving in an unknown environment. The tracking involves static objects of different known shapes, whose poses and sizes are determined online. For augmented reality applications, objects must be precisely tracked even if they are far from the camera or if they are hidden. Camera poses are computed using simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) based on bundle adjustment process to optimize problem parameters. We propose to include in an incremental bundle adjustment the parameters of the observed objects as well as the camera poses and 3D points. We show, through the example of 3D models of basics shapes (planes, parallelepipeds, cylinders and spheres) coarsely initialized online using a manual selection, that the joint optimization of parameters constrains the 3D points to approach the objects, and also constrains the objects to fit the 3D points. Moreover, we developed a generic and optimized library to solve this modified bundle adjustment and demonstrate the high performance of our solution compared to the state of the art alternative. Augmented reality experiments in real-time demonstrate the accuracy and the robustness of our method.


Friday 4


Social Presence with Virtual Glass


Holger Regenbrecht - University of Otago

Mohammed Alghamdi - University of Otago

Simon Hoermann - University of Otago

Tobias Langlotz - University of Otago

Mike Goodwin - University of Otago

Colin Aldridge - University of Otago


Presenting Author: Holger Regenbrecht

Abstract: We introduce the concept of a virtualized version of Google Glass called Virtual Glass. Virtual Glass is integrated into our collaborative virtual environment as a real-world metaphor for a communication device, one particularly suited for instructor-performer systems.


Friday 5


Semi-automatic Calibration of a Projector-Camera System Using Arbitrary Objects With Known Geometry


Christoph Resch, EXTEND3D GmbH

Peter Keitler, EXTEND3D GmbH

Christoffer Menk, Volkswagen AG

Gudrun Klinker, TU München


Presenting Author: Christoph Resch

Abstract: We propose a new semi-automatic calibration approach for projector-camera systems that - unlike existing auto-calibration approaches - additionally recovers the necessary global scale by projecting on an arbitrary object of known geometry from one view. Our method therefore combines surface registration with bundle adjustment optimization on points reconstructed from structured light projections. In simulations on virtual data and experiments with real data we demonstrate that our approach estimates the global scale robustly and is furthermore able to improve incorrectly guessed intrinsic and extrinsic calibration parameters.


Friday 6


Navigation in REVERIE's Virtual Environments


Fiona Rivera, Queen Mary University of London

Fons Kuijk, CWI Amsterdam

Ebroul Izquierdo, Queen Mary University of London


Presenting Author: Fiona M Rivera

Abstract: This work presents a novel navigation system for social collaborative virtual environments populated with multiple characters. The navigation system ensures collision free movement of avatars and agents. It supports direct user manipulation, automated path planning, positioning to get seated, and follow-me behaviour for groups. In follow-me mode, the socially aware system manages the mise en place of individuals within a group. A use case centred around on an educational virtual trip to the European Parliament created for the REVERIE FP7 project, also serves as an example to bring forward aspects of such navigational requirements.


Friday 7


Collaborative Telepresence Workspaces for Space Operation and Science


David Roberts - University of Salford     

Arturo Garcia - University of Salford     

Janki Dodiya - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V (DLR)               

Robin Wolf - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V (DLR)               

Allen Fairchild - University of Salford     

Terrence Fernando - University of Salford     


Presenting Author: David Roberts

Abstract: We introduce the collaborative telepresence workspaces for SPACE operation and science that are under development in the European research project CROSS DRIVE. The vision is to give space mission controllers and scientists the impression of “beaming” to the surface of Mars, along with simulations of the environment and equipment, to step out together where a robot has or may move. We briefly overview the design and describe the state of the demonstrator. The contribution of the publication is to give an example of how collaborative Virtual Reality research is being taken up in space science.


Friday 8


Does Virtual Reality really affect visual perception of egocentric distance?


Thomas Rousset - Aix Marseille Universite              

Christophe Bourdin - Aix Marseille Universite              

Cedric Goulon - CNRS    

Jocelyn Monnoyer - PSA Peugeot Citroen    

Jean-Louis Vercher - CNRS    


Presenting Author: Thomas Rousset

Abstract: Driving simulators are used to study human behavior in mobility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of interactive factors (stereoscopy and motion parallax) on distance perception. After a training session, participants were asked to estimate the relative location of a car on the same road. Results suggest that distance perception does not depend on interactive factors. However, the study revealed a large interpersonal variability: two profiles of participants were defined, those who accurately perceived distances and those who underestimated distances as usually reported. This classification was correlated to the level of performance during the training phase.


Friday 9


A GPU-Based Adaptive Algorithm for Non-Rigid Surface Registration


Antonio Carlos dos Santos Souza, Federal Institute of Bahia

Márcio Cerqueira de Farias Macedo, Federal University of Bahia

Antonio Lopes Apolinario Junior, Federal University of Bahia


Presenting Author: Antonio Carlos dos Santos Souza

Abstract: Non-rigid surface registration is fundamental when accurate tracking or reconstruction of 3D deformable shapes is desirable. However, the majority of non-rigid registration methods are not as fast as the ones developed in the field of rigid registration. Fast methods for non-rigid surface registration are particularly interesting for markerless augmented reality applications, in which the object being used as marker can support non-rigid user interaction. In this paper, we present an adaptive algorithm for non-rigid surface registration. Taking advantage from this adaptivity and the parallelism of the GPU, we show that the proposed algorithm is capable to achieve near real-time performance with an approach as accurate as the ones proposed in the literature.


Friday 10


Characteristics of virtual walking sensation created by a 3-dof motion seat


Seiya Shimabukuro - TMU     

Shunki Kato - TMU     

Yasushi Ikei - TMU     

Koichi Hirota - U-Tokyo             

Tomohiro Amemiya - NTT       

Michiteru Kitazaki - TUT       


Presenting Author: Shunki Kato

Abstract: Rendering characteristics of a virtual walk are presented. A motion seat created a small body motion passively in three dof (lift, roll, and pitch directions) to make the user feel as if the user him-/herself was walking despite actually sitting own body. We consider the actual self-body is a medium to render the virtual body to share experiences of others by using the motion seat. Basic characteristics of perception levels of the virtual walk were measured and compared. The result shows that perception levels of the virtual walk by the motion seat were around those of a real walk.


Friday 11


Self-Characterstics and Sound in Immersive Virtual Reality - Estimating Avatar Weight from Footstep Sounds


Erik Sikström, Aalborg University Copenhagen

Amalia de Götzen, Aalborg University Copenhagen

Stefania Serafin, Aalborg University Copenhagen


Presenting Author: Erik Sikström

Abstract: This experiment aimed to investigate whether a user controlling a full body avatar via real time motion tracking in an immersive virtual reality setup, would estimate the weight of the virtual avatar differently if the footstep sounds are manipulated using three different audio filter settings. The visual appearance of the avatar was available in two sizes. The subjects performed six walks with each audio configuration active once over two ground types. After completing each walk, the participants were asked to estimate the weight of the virtual avatar and the suitability of the audio feedback. The results indicate that the filters amplifying the two lower center frequencies altered the subjects' estimates of the weight of the avatar body towards being heavier than when compared with the filter with the higher center frequency. There were no significant differences between the weight estimates of the two groups using the different avatar bodies.


Friday 12


Wings and Flying in Immersive VR - Controller Type, Sound Effects and Experienced Ownership and Agency


 Erik Sikström, Aalborg University Copenhagen

Amalia de Götzen, Aalborg University Copenhagen

Stefania Serafin, Aalborg University Copenhagen


Presenting Author: Erik Sikström

Abstract: An experiment investigated the subjective experiences of ownership and agency of a pair of virtual wings attached to a motion controlled avatar in an immersive virtual reality setup. A between groups comparison of two ways of controlling the movement of the wings and flight ability. One where the subjects achieved the wing motion and flight ability by using a hand-held video game controller and the other by moving the shoulder. Through four repetitions of a flight task with varying amounts of self-produced audio feedback (from the movement of the virtual limbs), the subjects evaluated their experienced embodiment of the wings on a body ownership and agency questionnaire. The results shows significant differences between the controllers in some of the questionnaire items and that adding self-produced sounds to the avatar, slightly changed the subject's evaluations.


Friday 13


Optical See-through HUDs Effect on Depth Judgments of Real World Objects


Missie Smith - Virginia Tech     

Nadejda Doutcheva - Virginia Tech     

Joseph Gabbard - Virginia Tech     

Gary Burnett - University of Nottingham          


Presenting Author: Missie Smith

Abstract: While AR HUD graphics offer opportunities for improved performance and safety, there exists a need to determine the effects of such graphics on human perception and workload. We are especially interested in examining this problem within the domain of surface transportation (e.g., driving). This work represents an initial step in understanding how AR graphics intended to visually cue driving hazards (e.g., pedestrian) may affect drivers’ depth judgments to real world driving hazards. This study explores whether Augmented Reality (AR) graphics have directional effects on users’ depth perception of real-world objects.


Friday 14


EVE: Exercise in Virtual Environments


Amaury SOLIGNAC - I.C.E.B.E.R.G.    

Sebastien KUNTZ - MiddleVR          


Presenting Author: Amaury SOLIGNAC

Abstract: EVE (Exercise in Virtual Environments) is an operational VR system designed for space, polar and submarine crews. This system allows crewmembers -living and working in artificial habitats- to explore immersive natural landscapes during their daily physical exercise, and experience presence in a variety of alternate environments. Using recent hardware and software, this innovative psychological counter-measure aims at reducing the adverse effects of confinement and monotony in long duration missions, while maintaining motivation for physical exercise. Initial testing with a proof-of-concept prototype was conducted near the South magnetic pole, as well as in transient microgravity.


Friday 15


Subjective Evaluation of Peripheral Viewing during Exposure to a 2D/3D Video Clip


Masumi Takada - Aichi Medical University             

Masaru Miyao - Nagoya University         

Hiroki Takada - University of Fukui        


Presenting Author: Masumi Takada

Abstract: The present study examines the effects of peripheral vision on reported motion sickness during exposure to 2D/3D video clips for 1 minute and for 1 minute afterwards in human subjects. The Simulator Sickness Questionnaire was administered after exposure to the video clips with or without visual pursuit of a 3D object and compared. The questionnaire findings significantly changed after the subjects viewed the video clips peripherally. This influence may result when subjects view a poorly depicted background element peripherally, which generates depth perception that contradicts daily experience.


Friday 16


Zoom Factor Compensation for Monocular SLAM


Takafumi Taketomi, Nara Institute of Science and Technology

Janne Heikkilä, University of Oulu


Presenting Author: Takafumi Taketomi

Abstract: SLAM algorithms are widely used in augmented reality applications for registering virtual objects. Most SLAM algorithms estimate camera poses and 3D positions of feature points using known intrinsic camera parameters that are calibrated and fixed in advance. This assumption means that the algorithm does not allow changing the intrinsic camera parameters during runtime. We propose a method for handling focal length changes in the SLAM algorithm. Our method is designed as a pre-processing step for the SLAM algorithm input. In our method, the change of the focal length is estimated before the tracking process of the SLAM algorithm. Camera zooming effects in the input camera images are compensated for by using the estimated focal length change. By using our method, camera zooming can be used in the existing SLAM algorithms such as PTAM with minor modifications. In the experiment, the effectiveness of the proposed method was quantitatively evaluated. The results indicate that the method can successfully deal with abrupt changes of the camera focal length.


Friday 17


A Modified Tactile Brush Algorithm for Complex Touch Gestures


Fei Tang, University of Texas at Dallas

Ryan McMahan, University of Texas at Dallas

Eric Ragan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Tandra Allen, University of Texas at Dallas


Presenting Author: Ryan P. McMahan

Abstract: Several researchers have investigated phantom tactile sensation (i.e., the perception of a nonexistent actuator between two real actuators) and apparent tactile motion (i.e., the perception of a moving actuator due to time delays between onsets of multiple actuations). Prior work has focused primarily on determining appropriate Durations of Stimulation (DOS) and Stimulus Onset Asynchronies (SOA) for simple touch gestures, such as a single finger stroke. To expand upon this knowledge, we investigated complex touch gestures involving multiple, simultaneous points of contact, such as a whole hand touching the arm. To implement complex touch gestures, we modified the Tactile Brush algorithm to support rectangular areas of tactile stimulation.


Friday 18


Experiencing Interior Environments: New Approaches for the Immersive Display of Large-Scale Pointcloud Data


Ross Tredinnick, University of Wisconsin - Madison

Markus Broecker, University of Wisconsin - Madison

Kevin Ponto, University of Wisconsin - Madison


Presenting Author: Kevin Ponto

Abstract: This document introduces a new application for rendering massive LiDAR point cloud data sets of interior environments within high-resolution immersive VR display systems. Overall contributions are: to create an application which is able to visualize large-scale point clouds at interactive rates in immersive display environments, to develop a flexible pipeline for processing LiDAR data sets that allows display of both minimally processed and more rigorously processed point clouds, and to provide visualization mechanisms that produce accurate rendering of interior environments to better understand physical aspects of interior spaces. The work introduces three problems with producing accurate immersive rendering of LiDAR point cloud data sets of interiors and presents solutions to these problems. Rendering performance is compared between the developed application and a previous immersive LiDAR viewer.


Friday 19


Landscape Change From Daytime To Nighttime Under Augmented Reality Environment


Noriyuki Uda - Nagoya Sangyo University         

Yoshitaka Kamiya - Nagoya Sangyo University         

Mamoru Endo - Nagoya University         

Takami Yasuda - Nagoya University         


Presenting Author: Noriyuki Uda

Abstract: AR (Augmented Reality) technology, which uses actual landscape photography captured with a camera on-site as a base and then overlays virtual objects on that landscape image, is valid for landscape simulation. In this study, we generate nightscape images by superimposing high-luminance segments (virtual objects) over darkening landscape images. They are adjusted due to dark adaption modification. We found that the nightscape was evaluated more highly than the daytime landscape, and we were able to quantitatively confirm that evaluations were high for landscape in twilight after sundown.


Friday 20


Impact of Illusory Resistance on Finger Walking Behavior


Yusuke Ujitoko - The University of Tokyo              

Koichi Hirota - The University of Tokyo              


Presenting Author: Yusuke Ujitoko

Abstract: We aim to enable additional sensation when using an anthropomorphic finger motion interface. To do so, we applied a conventional method to generate pseduo-haptics. To control the amount of scroll resulting from finger displacement on a display, illusory resistance or pseudo friction was confirmed by subjective evaluation. We first clarified that this illusory resistance influences finger walking behavior such as stride or speed. An additional experiment conducted in public space verified this influence.


Friday 21


Development of a Wearable Haptic Device with Pneumatic Artificial Muscles and MR brake


Makasazu Egawa - chuo-university              

Takumi Watanabe - chuo-university              

Taro Nakamura - chuo-university              


Presenting Author: Masakazu Egawa

Abstract: Desktop haptic device has been developed in the field of rehabilitation and entertainment. However, the desktop type restrains human’s movement. Therefore, it is difficult to receive force sense information, moving to wide range position and posture. In this study, we developed a 1-DOF wearable haptic device with pneumatic artificial muscles and a MR brake. These smart actuators have high power density and change its output force structurally. Therefore, this haptic device can render various force sense such as elasticity, friction and viscosity. We describe two experiments rendering elasticity and friction to evaluate the performance of the device.




Friday 22


Preliminary Evaluation of a Virtual Needle Insertion Training System


Duc Van NGUYEN, University of Evry

Safa Ben Lakhal, University of Evry

Amine Chellali, University of Evry


Presenting Author: Amine Chellali

Abstract: Inserting a needle to perform a biopsy requires a high haptic sensitivity. The traditional learning methods based on observation and training on real patients are questionable. In this paper, we present a preliminary evaluation of a VR trainer for needle insertion tasks. The system aims to replicate an existing physical setup while overcoming some of its limitations. Results permit to validate some design choices and suggest some UI improvements.


Friday 23


From visual cues to climate perception in virtual urban environments


Toinon Vigier - CERMA UMR CNRS 1563             

Guillaume Moreau - CERMA UMR CNRS 1563             

Daniel Siret - CERMA UMR CNRS 1563             


Presenting Author: Toinon Vigier

Abstract: Virtual reality is a good tool to design and assess urban projects and to study perception in cities. Climate perception significantly influences the perception and use of urban spaces; however, virtual urban environments are scarcely represented with different climatic aspects. In this paper, we study the role that visual cues (sky aspect, shadows, sun location, and light effects) specifically play in climate perception (season, daytime and temperature) in virtual urban environments. We present and discuss the data we collected from a recent virtual reality experiment in which ten variations of the climatic context in the same urban space were assessed.



Friday 24


HorizontalDragger: a Freehand Remote Selector for Object Acquisition


Siju Wu, IBISC, Evry University

Samir Otmane, IBISC, Evry University

Amine Chellali, IBISC, Evry University

Guillaume Moreau, CERMA, Ecole Centrale de Nantes


Presenting Author: Siju Wu

Abstract: Interaction with computers using freehand gestures becomes more and more popular. However, it is hard to make precise inputs by making gestures in air without a physical support. In this paper, we present HorizontalDragger, a new selection technique aimed to improve the selection precision by converting the 2D selection problem into a 1D selection problem. After setting a region of interest in the display, all the objects inside the region are considered as potential targets. The user can drag the index finger horizontally to choose the desired target.


Friday 25


A Real-Time Welding Training System Based on Virtual Reality


Benkai Xie, Wuhan University of Technology

Qiang Zhou, Wuhan University of Technology

Liang Yu, Wuhan Onew Technology Co.,Lid


Presenting Author: Benkai Xie

Abstract: Onew360 is a training simulator for simulating gas metal arc welding (GMAW). This system is comprised of standard welding hardware components (helmet, gun, work-piece), a PC, a head-mounted display, a tracking system for both the torch and the user's head, and external audio speakers. The track model of welding simulator using single-camera vision measurement technology to calculate the position of the welding gun and helmet, and the simulation model using simple model method to simulate the weld geometry based on the orientation and speed of the welding torch. So that the system produce a realistic, interactive, and immersive welding experience.


Friday 26


Transparent Cockpit Using Telexistence


Takura Yanagi, Nissan Motor Co

Charith Lasantha Fernando, Keio University

MHD Yamen Saraiji, Keio University

Kouta Minamizawa, Keio University

Susumu Tachi, Keio University

Norimasa Kishi, Nissan Motor Co


Presenting Author: Takura Yanagi

Abstract: We propose an indirect-vision, video-see-through augmented reality (AR) cockpit that uses telexistence technology to provide an AR enriched, virtually transparent view of the surroundings through monitors instead of windows. Such a virtual view has the potential to enhance driving performance and experience above conventional glass as well as head-up display equipped cockpits by combining AR overlays with images obtained by future image sensors that are superior to human eyes. As a proof of concept, we replaced the front windshield of an experimental car by a large stereoscopic monitor. A robotic stereo camera pair that mimics the driver's head motions provides stereoscopic images with seamless motion parallax to the monitor. Initial driving tests at moderate speeds on roads within our research facility confirmed the illusion of transparency. We will conduct human factors evaluations after implementing AR functions in order to show whether it is possible to achieve an overall benefit over conventional cockpits in spite of possible conceptual issues like latency, shift of viewpoint and short distance between driver and display.


Friday 27


Flying Robot Manipulation System Using a Virtual Plane


Kazuya Yonezawa - The University of Tokyo              

Takefumi Ogawa - The University of Tokyo              


Presenting Author: Kazuya Yonezawa

Abstract: The flexible movements of flying robots make it difficult for novices to manipulate them precisely with controllers such as a joystick. Moreover, the mapping of instructions between a robot and its reactions is not necessarily intuitive for users. We propose manipulation methods for flying robots using augmented reality technologies. In the proposed system, a virtual plane is superimposed on a flying robot and users control the robot by manipulating the virtual plane and drawing a moving path on it. We present the design and implementation of our system and describe experiments conducted to evaluate our methods.


Friday 28


Binocular Interface: Interaction Techniques Considering Binocular Parallax for a Large Display


Keigo Yoshimura - Graduate school of Interdisciplinary Information Studies, The University of Tokyo        

Takefumi Ogawa - Information Technology Center, The University of Tokyo          


Presenting Author: Keigo Yoshimura

Abstract: There have been many studies on intuitive user interfaces for large displays by using pointing movements. However, if a user cannot reach a display, object manipulations on the display are difficult because the user will see duplicate fingers due to binocular parallax. We propose Binocular Interface, which enables interactions with an object by using two pseudo fingers. In a prototype, pointing positions on the display are estimated on the basis of the positions of eyes and a finger detected by an RGB-D camera. We implemented three basic operations (select, move, and resize) using duplicate fingers and evaluated each operation. 


Friday 29


Tracking Human Locomotion by Relative Positional Feet Tracking


Markus Zank - Innovation Center Virtual Reality, ETH Zurich    

Thomas Nescher - Innovation Center Virtual Reality, ETH Zurich    

Andreas Kunz - Innovation Center Virtual Reality, ETH Zurich    


Presenting Author: Markus Zank

Abstract: Tracking human movements and locomotion accurately in real time requires expensive tracking systems which need a lot of time to install and their cost typically increases with the size of the tracked space. This poster presents an approach to significantly reduce costs for tracking human locomotion in large tracking spaces. The proposed approach employs a low-cost user-worn tracking system to track limbs including the user’s feet in a user-centric coordinate-system. This relative limb position is associated with the absolute position in a given environment by locking a foot's global position while it is in the stance-phase of the gait cycle.